Pilgrimage of Grace and Lincolnshire Rising, the Causes
In 1536 Lincolnshire was the first county to rise in rebellion against the government of Henry VIII’s realm by the ruling faction headed by Thomas Cromwell.
The Lincolnshire rising began on the evening of Sunday 1 October 1536 at Louth. It spread at the lighting of a carefully set network of blazing beacons and to the peel of church bells rung in back rounds that is, ringing the bells in ascending order of pitch from the Tenor to the Treble. A week later all of Lincolnshire was in rebel hands including the county town. Thousands of armed men gathered at Lincoln Cathedral and on Monday 9 October a list of their demands was sent to Henry VIII in London.
Their grievances are known as the Lincoln Articles.
1 [Suppression of Religious Houses] The suppression of so many religious houses as are at this instant time suppressed whereby the service of our God is not well [maintained] but also the Commons of your realm by unrelieved, the which as we think is a great hurt to the Commonwealth and many sisters /houses[inhabitants] put from their livings and left at large......[perhaps the like of Adam?]
2 [Act of Uses]
The second article is that we humbly beseech your Grace that the act of use[s] may be suppressed because we think why the said act that we your true subjects be clearly restrained of tout [sic] liberties in the declaration of our wills concerning outlands, as well as for payment of debts, for doing of your Grace service, as for helping and elevying. [relieving] of our children the which we had by [suffering] of your laws[ by long continuance] the which as we think is a great hurt and [discomfort] to the common wealth.
3 [Levies on Sheep and Cattle]
The third article is that where your Grace has a tax or a quindeyne[ fifteenth] granted to you by an act of Parliament payable the next year, which is and has been ever leveable [levyable] of sheep and cattle, and the sheep and cattle of your subjects within the said shire are now at this instant time in manner utterly decayed and [...] whereby your Grace to take the said tax or quindeyn[ fifteenth] your said subjects shall be constrained to pay 4d one beast and 12d for 20tie sheep, the which would be an importunate charge to them considering the poverty that they be in all ready and loose which they have sustained these two years past.
4 [Persons of Low Birth Serving on Kings Counsel – Rich & Cromwell]
The fourth article is that we your true subjects think that your Grace takes of your counsel and being about you such persons as be of low birth and small reputation which has procured the premises most especially for their own advantage , the which we suspect to be Lord Cromwell and Sir Richard Rich Chancellor of the augmentation
5 [Promotion of Certain Bishops] The fifth article is that way you do subjects find us grieved that there be diverse bishops of England at your graces late promotion that have made false the faith of Christ, as we think, which are the Bishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of St. David's, the Bishop of Dublin, and in especial as we think the beginnings of all the trouble of this realm and the vexation that has been taken of your subjects the Bishop of Lincoln.